How Do They Make Maple Syrup?

Are you a grade B maple syrup fan? Well, you can’t get it anymore. To understand why, we have to look at the science behind the whole process, from sap to syrup. On the way, we’ll cover hydrometers, reverse osmosis, boiling point elevation, and George’s dislike of Maillard reaction diagrams.

#maillard #foodscience #maplesyrup

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Executive Producers:
Hilary Hudson

Elaine Seward
Andrew Sobey
Darren Weaver

George Zaidan

Thanks to Bill and Susan Freeman
Glastenview Maple Farm

Scientific Consultants:
Michelle Boucher, PhD
Timothy D. Perkins, PhD (UVM)
David W. Ball, PhD
Brianne Raccor, PhD

Drone Operator:
Kayo Sobey

Executive in Charge for PBS: Maribel Lopez
Associate Director of Programming for PBS: Niki Walker

Reactions is a production of the American Chemical Society.
© 2022 American Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

The Chemical Composition of Maple Syrup:

Chemical composition of five standard grades of pure maple syrup:

United States Standards for Grades of Maple Sirup (Syrup):,taste25.0Tc)

168.140 Maple sirup:

Agriculture – Maple Statistics:

Consumer Preference for Graded Maple Syrup:

Sap flow, wounding and compartmentalization in maple:

North American Maple Syrup Producers Manual full:

Making the Grade—The Color and Flavor of Maple Syrup:

Formation of flavour compounds in the Maillard reaction:

Maple syrup production from sap preconcentrated to ultra high °Brix by membrane technology: Composition and properties:

Assessment of the Flavor of Syrup Produced with High-Brix RO Systems:

United States Standards for Grades of Maple Syrup:,2015_1.pdf

Maple syrup grades:

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